Topic: Disasters, terror and stress management

2011 Norway attacks: Examining long-term adjustment in survivors of the Utøya Island massacre

2016 This project has been completed 2020

Project Manager

  • Hafstad, Gertrud Sofie

    Hafstad, Gertrud Sofie

    Head of Section / Research Professor / PhD

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Project Members

Main objective

The overall aim of this project is to enhance our understanding of survivors’ long-term adjustment after a terrorist attack.

Subsidiary objectives

More specifically, I want to explore the positive and negative personal changes people experiences post-trauma, and study the association between self-perceived posttraumatic growth (PTG), posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), centrality of event (CES), among young adult trauma survivors, over time. Observed positive behavioral changes post-terror will aslo be explored.


By assessing PTG, PTSD and CES at several time points, I will be able to examine the developmental pathways and explore their temporal relationships in post-trauma adjustment.  Both quantitative and qualitative methods will be used.


Glad, K. A., Czajkowski, N. O., Dyb, G., & Hafstad, G. S. (2020). Does event centrality mediate the effect of peritraumatic reactions on post-traumatic growth in survivors of a terrorist attack. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 11(1). doi:10.1080/20008198.2020.1766276

Glad, K. A., Czajkowski, N. O., Dyb, G., & Hafstad, G. S. (2019). Cross-Lagged Association Between Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Perceived Centrality of a Terrorist Attack. Clinical Psychological Science. doi:10.1177/2167702619873590

Glad, K. A., Kilmer, R. P., Dyb, G., & Hafstad, G. S. (2019). Caregiver-reported positive changes in young survivors of a terrorist attack. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 28(3), 704-719. doi:10.1007/s10826-018-1298-7