Method: In total, 325 survivors of the shooting on Utøya Island were interviewed 4–5 months after the attack and provided a free narrative of the event. Posttraumatic stress symptoms were assessed using the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index; depression and anxiety were assessed using HSCL-8. For the purpose of the current study, the authors chose participants who were under the age of 26 at the time of the terrorist attack (M = 18.4 years), which constituted the vast majority of the total sample (93%).
Results: The authors found that 54% of the sample felt threatened during and immediately after the attack, not only by the perpetrator himself, but by other people as well; in most cases by people who came to help them (medical personnel, policemen, volunteers). The participants who mentioned experiencing extended fear in their trauma narratives had significantly higher scores of posttraumatic stress symptoms, anxiety, and depression 5 months after the attack than participants who did not peritraumatically experience extended fear.
Conclusions: Early detection of extended fear can help in identifying individuals who will later develop symptomatology. In addition, knowledge of the phenomenon could help policemen and medical personnel understand survivors’ seemingly irrational reactions.