The aim of the present study is to examine what kind of potential traumatic events is experienced by visually impaired individuals, how reactions to traumatic events is manifested and coped with, and how they deal with potential threats.
We plan to publish three papers from this study, all in international peer reviewed journals.
- Traumatic experiences among blind and visually impaired individuals. Are blind and visually impaired at high risk for being victims of accidents, crimes and violence?
- Posttraumatic stress, depression, and social withdrawal among blind and visual impaired individuals. Associations with former experiences and coping strategies.
- How blind and visually impaired individuals deal with potential threats. Use of visibility, security measures, and help-seeking.
The study has a cross-sectional design. Participants will be members of the Norwegian association for visually impaired and blind, and the organization will be responsible for contacting potential participants. Of the total 10 000 members of the Norwegian association for visual impaired and blind, a sample of 800 individuals will be randomly selected for participation. Data collection will be done through a telephone interview of each individual participant.
Design of the telephone interview as well as the information to participate, has been done in collaboration with the member organization.
Life Event Checklist (LEC-5). The 17-item questionnaire LEC-5 will be used to explore the number of different kinds of potential traumatic experiences.
Posttraumatic stress checklist (PCL-5). The 20-item questionnaire PCL-5 will be used for measuring the intensity of posttraumatic stress reactions.
The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). The PHQ-p is a 9-item self-report inventory to assess depressive disorder.
General Self Efficacy Scale (GSE). The 6-item GSE will be used to measure perceived self-efficacy. The scale consists of 10 statements about mastery
Impact of Vision Impairment Questionnaire (IVI) is a 20-item questionnaire to measure mobility and independence, emotional well-being, and reading and accessing information.
Three item loneliness scale is about different aspects of experienced loneliness and isolation.
Questions about how participants deal with potential threats has been developed in cooperation with user organizations and some of their members, including a workshop in advance of the survey. The same applies to questions about coping with previous traumatic experiences and stress reactions.