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Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott Press Photos

Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott

Researcher / Ph.D.
Unit: Section for Implementation and treatment research
Telephone: 414 33 496

Areas of Expertise

My research focuses on identifying mechanisms of change in psychopathology following exposure to traumatic events. I am studying why for example posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can develop, and what we can do to reduce PTSD in individuals who do not recover over time. I am interested in exploring three questions that explores this topic at different levels:

1) What factors protect against development of PTSD, and what factors increase the risk? Many people experience traumatic events without subsequent lasting psychological distress. However, others experience that their distress does not subside over time. Information about what factors contribute to determine different trajectories are useful to identify individuals who need help. I am particularly interested in how social relations may influence development and recovery from PTSD.

2. What are the mechanisms that set forth and maintain PTSD? PTSD is characterized by symptoms, thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that can influence each other. Self-reinforcing networks of symptoms such as reexperiencing the traumatic event, poor sleep, and concentration difficulties. I am aiming to identify central elements of the system of PTSD, and through this point to symptoms it may be beneficial to focus on in treatment.

3. How can we promote positive processes for recovery of PTSD? Several evidence-based treatments of PTSD which have shown positive effects exist. However, the change mechanisms for these treatments are unclear. I am interested in identifying these, and study conditions that are needed for symptoms of PTSD to be reduced.

In addition, I am also interested in use of statistical methods that provide possibilities to answer complex research questions such as SEM-modelling, mixed effects models, counterfactual-based causal mediation, and network analysis.

 

Projects

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Scientific articles and chapters

2019

Birkeland, M. S., Strøm, I. F., Myhre, M. C., & Thoresen, S. (2019). Am I an island? A network analysis exploring aspects of social landscapes after childhood violence. Psychological Trauma. doi:10.1037/tra0000483

Birkeland, M. S., Aakvaag, H. F., Strøm, I. F., & Thoresen, S. (2019). Sosiale relasjoner som konsekvens og risikofaktor. In H. F. Aakvaag & I. F. Strøm (Red.) Vold i oppveksten: Varige spor? En longitudinell undersøkelse av reviktimisering, helse, rus og sosiale relasjoner hos unge utsatt for vold i barndommen (pp. 111-131). Oslo: Nasjonalt kunnskapssenter om vold og traumatisk stress.

Jensen, T. K., Skar, A. M. S., Andersson, E. S., & Birkeland, M. S. (2019). Long-term mental health in unaccompanied refugee minors: Pre- and post-flight predictors. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. doi:10.1007/s00787-019-01340-6

Strøm, I. F., Birkeland, M. S., Aakvaag, H. F., & Thoresen, S. (2019). Trajectories of Alcohol Use and Alcohol Intoxication in Young Adults Exposed to Childhood Violence and Later Problematic Drinking Behavior. Journal of family Violence.

Thoresen, S., Birkeland, M. S., Arnberg, F. K., Wentzel-Larsen, T., & Blix, I. (2019). Long-term mental health and social support in victims of disaster: comparison with a general population sample. BJPsych Open, 5(1). doi:10.1192/bjo.2018.74

2018

Blix, I., Kanten, A. B., Birkeland, M. S., & Thoresen, S. (2018). Imagining What Could Have Happened: Types and Vividness of Counterfactual Thoughts and the Relationship With Post-traumatic Stress Reactions. Frontiers in Psychology, 9. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00515

Strøm, I. F., Aakvaag, H. F., Birkeland, M. S., & Thoresen, S.Felix, E. (2018). The mediating role of shame in the relationship between childhood bullying victimization and adult psychosocial adjustment. [El papel mediador de la verguenza en la relacion entre la victimizacion por acoso en la infancia y el ajuste psicosocial de los adultos]. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 9(1). doi:10.1080/20008198.2017.1418570

Thoresen, S., Birkeland, M. S., Wentzel-Larsen, T., & Blix, I. (2018). Loss of trust may never heal. Institutional trust in disaster victims in a long-term perspective: Associations with social support and mental health. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 1204. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01204

Thoresen, S., Aakvaag, H. F., Strøm, I. F., Wentzel-Larsen, T., & Birkeland, M. S. (2018). Loneliness as a mediator of the relationship between shame and health problems in young people exposed to childhood violence. Social Science and Medicine, 211, 183-189. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2018.06.002

2017

Birkeland, M. S., & Heir, T. (2017). Making connections: exploring the centrality of posttraumatic stress symptoms and covariates after a terrorist attack. European Journal of Psychotraumatology. doi:10.1080/20008198.2017.1333387

Birkeland, M. S., Blix, I., Solberg, Ø., & Heir, T. (2017). Does optimism act as a buffer against posttraumatic stress over time? A longitudinal study of the protective role of optimism after the 2011 Oslo bombing.. Psychological Trauma, 9(2), 207-213. doi:10.1037/tra0000188

Birkeland, M. S., Blix, I., Solberg, Ø., & Heir, T. (2017). Gender Differences in Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms after a Terrorist Attack: A Network Approach. Frontiers in Psychology, 8. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.02091

Birkeland, M. S., Hansen, M., Blix, I., Solberg, Ø., & Heir, T. (2017). For Whom Does Time Heal Wounds? Individual Differences in Stability and Change in Posttraumatic Stress after the 2011 Oslo Bombing. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 30(1), 19-26. doi:10.1002/jts.22158

Birkeland, M. S., Nielsen, M. B., Hansen, M., Knardahl, S., & Heir, T. (2017). Like a bridge over troubled water? A longitudinal study of general social support, colleague support, and leader support as recovery factors after a traumatic event. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 8(1). doi:10.1080/20008198.2017.1302692

Birkeland, M. S., Nielsen, M. B., Hansen, M., Knardahl, S., & Heir, T. (2017). The impact of a workplace terrorist attack on employees’ perceptions of leadership: A longitudinal study from pre- to postdisaster. Leadership Quarterly, 28(5), 659-671. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2017.01.002

Hansen, M., Birkeland, M. S., Nissen, A., Blix, I., Solberg, Ø., & Heir, T. (2017). Prevalence and course of symptom-defined PTSD in individuals directly or indirectly exposed to terror: A longitudinal study. Psychiatry, 80(2), 171-183. doi:10.1080/00332747.2016.1230983

Nielsen, M. B., Birkeland, M. S., Hansen, M., Knardahl, S., & Heir, T. (2017). Victimization from workplace bullying after a traumatic event: time-lagged relationships with symptoms of posttraumatic stress. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 90(5), 411-421. doi:10.1007/s00420-017-1204-4

Valla, L., Birkeland, M. S., Hofoss, D., & Slinning, K. (2017). Developmental pathways in infants from 4 to 24 months. Child: Care, Health and Development, 43(4), 546-555. doi:10.1111/cch.12467

2016

Birkeland, M. S., Knatten, C. K., Hansen, M., Hem, C., & Heir, T. (2016). Long-term relationships between perceived social support and posttraumatic stress after the 2011 Oslo bombing: A three-year longitudinal study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 202, 230-235. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2016.05.037

Blix, I., Birkeland, M. S., Hansen, M., & Heir, T. (2016). Posttraumatic Growth—An Antecedent and Outcome of Posttraumatic Stress: Cross-Lagged Associations Among Individuals Exposed to Terrorism. Clinical Psychological Science, 4(4), 620-628. doi:10.1177/2167702615615866

Blix, I., Birkeland, M. S., Solberg, Ø., Hansen, M., & Heir, T. (2016). The Launching and Ensnaring Effects of Construing a Traumatic Event as Central to One’s Identity and Life Story. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 30(4), 526-531. doi:10.1002/acp.3224

Blix, I., Kanten, A. B., Birkeland, M. S., Solberg, Ø., Nissen, A., & Heir, T. (2016). Thinking About What Might Have Happened: Counterfactual Thinking and Post-traumatic Stress in Individuals Directly and Indirectly Exposed to the 2011 Oslo Bombing. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 30(6), 983-991. doi:10.1002/acp.3289

Holsen, I., & Birkeland, M. S. (2016). Course, predictors, and outcomes of depressed mood in a cohort of Norwegian adolescents followed from age 13 into adulthood age 30. Emerging Adulthood, 5(1), 3. doi:10.1177/2167696816635810

Solberg, Ø., Birkeland, M. S., Blix, I., Hansen, M., & Heir, T. (2016). Towards an exposure-dependent model of Posttraumatic stress: Longitudinal Course of Posttraumatic stress Symptomatology and Functional Impairment after the 2011 Oslo Bombing. Psychological Medicine, 46(15), 3241-3254. doi:10.1017/S0033291716001860

Valla, L., Wentzel-Larsen, T., Smith, L., Birkeland, M. S., & Slinning, K. (2016). Association between maternal postnatal depressive symptoms and infants’ communication skills: A longitudinal study. Infant Behavior and Development, 45, 83-90. doi:10.1016/j.infbeh.2016.10.001

2015

Birkeland, M. S., Hafstad, G. S., Blix, I., & Heir, T. (2015). Latent classes of posttraumatic stress and growth. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 28(3), 272-286. doi:10.1080/10615806.2014.956097

Birkeland, M. S., Nielsen, M. B., Knardahl, S., & Heir, T. (2015). Associations between work environment and psychological distress after a workplace terror attack: The importance of role expectations, predictability and leader support. PLoS ONE, 10(3). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0119492

Birkeland, M. S., Nielsen, M. B., Knardahl, S., & Heir, T. (2015). Time-lagged relationships between leadership behaviors and psychological distress after a workplace terrorist attack. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 89(4), 689-697. doi:10.1007/s00420-015-1106-2

Blix, I., Birkeland, M. S., Hansen, M., & Heir, T. (2015). Posttraumatic Growth and Centrality of Event: A Longitudinal Study in the Aftermath of the 2011 Oslo Bombing. Psychological Trauma, 7(1), 18-23. doi:10.1037/tra0000006

2014

Birkeland, M. S., Breivik, K., & Wold, B. (2014). Peer acceptance protects global self-esteem from negative effects of low closeness to parents during adolescence and early adulthood. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 43(1), 70-80. doi:10.1007/s10964-013-9929-1

Birkeland, M. S., Torsheim, T., Leversen, I., & Wold, B. (2014). Pathways to adulthood and their precursors and outcomes. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 55(1), 26-32. doi:10.1111/sjop.12087

2013

Blix, I., Hansen, M., Birkeland, M. S., Nissen, A., & Heir, T. (2013). Posttraumatic growth, posttraumatic stress and psychological adjustment in the aftermath of the 2011 Oslo bombing attack. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 11:160. doi:10.1186/1477-7525-11-160

2012

Birkeland, M. S., Melkevik, O., Holsen, I., & Wold, B. (2012). Trajectories of global self-esteem development during adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 35(1), 43-54. doi:10.1016/j.adolescence.2011.06.006

Holsen, I., Jones, D. C., & Birkeland, M. S. (2012). Body image satisfaction among Norwegian adolescents and young adults: A longitudinal study of the influence of interpersonal relationships and BMI. Body image, 9(2), 201-208. doi:10.1016/j.bodyim.2012.01.006

Leversen, I., Danielsen, A. G., Birkeland, M. S., & Samdal, O. (2012). Basic psychological need satisfaction in leisure activities and adolescents’ life satisfaction. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41(12), 1588-1599. doi:10.1007/s10964-012-9776-5

2009

Birkeland, M. S., Rimehaug, T., Arefjord, K., & Jøraas, T. (2009). Klienters erfaringer med e-terapi som tillegg til vanlig psykoterapi. Tidsskrift for Norsk Psykologforening, 46(4), 348-354.

Birkeland, M. S., Torsheim, T., & Wold, B. (2009). A longitudinal study of the relationship between leisure-time physical activity and depressed mood among adolescents. Psychology of Sport And Exercise, 10(1), 25-34. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2008.01.005

Jøraas, E., Rimehaug, T., Birkeland, M. S., & Arefjord, K. (2009). E-terapi som supplement i poliklinisk oppfølging av ungdom – en kvalitativ studie av terapeuterfaringer. Tidsskrift for Norsk Psykologforening, 46(4), 355-361.

Books and dissertations

Birkeland, M. S. (2013). Development of global self-esteem. University of Bergen. (Dissertation).

Reports

Thoresen, S., Andreassen, A. L., Arnberg, F. K., Birkeland, M. S., Blix, I., & Hjorthol, T. (2017). Scandinavian Star: Erfaringer og helse hos overlevende og etterlatte etter 26 år [Scandinavian Star] Norwegian only. Oslo: Nasjonalt kunnskapssenter om vold og traumatisk stress. (Rapport 5/2017).

Samdal, O., Bye, H. H., Torsheim, T., Birkeland, M. S., Diseth, Å., Fismen, A. S., . . . Wold, B. et al. (2012). Sosial ulikhet i helse og læring blant barn og unge: Resultater fra den landsrepresentative spørreskjemaundersøkelsen ”Helsevaner blant skoleleelver. En WHO-undersøkelse i flere land”. Bergen: HEMIL-senteret, Universitet i Bergen.

Other publications

2019

Birkeland, M. S., Strøm, I. F., Myhre, M. C., & Thoresen, S. (2019 September). Associations between aspects of social landscapes after childhood violence. A network analysis. Paper presented at 3rd European Conference on Domestic Violence, Oslo.

Birkeland, M. S., Aakvaag, H. F., Strøm, I. F., & Thoresen, S. (2019 October). Vold i oppveksten: Varige spor? Presentasjon av hovedresultater. Foredrag på Fagdag, Oslo.

Birkeland, M. S., Aakvaag, H. F., Strøm, I. F., & Thoresen, S. (2019 September). Vold i oppveksten: Varige spor? Presentasjon av hovedresultater. Foredrag på Lansering av KRIPOS’ rapport “Alvorlig vold mot små barn”.

Harpviken, A. N., Skar, A. M. S., Birkeland, M. S., Ormhaug, S. M., & Jensen, T. K. (2019 September). Who reports what? A comparison of child and caregiver’s reports of child trauma exposure and post-traumatic stress symptoms. Paper presented at 3rd European Conference on Domestic Violence (ECDV), Oslo.

Skar, A. M. S., Birkeland, M. S., Ormhaug, S. M., & Jensen, T. K. (2019 January). Does routine screening for trauma matter? A quasi-experiment of differences in diagnoses after implementation of trauma screening procedures in Norway. Paper presented at The 34th annual San Diego international conference on child and family maltreatment, San Diego.

2018

Birkeland, M. S., Strøm, I. F., Myhre, M. C., & Thoresen, S. (2018 November). Am I an island? A network analysis exploring social landscapes after childhood violence. Paper presented at 34th Annual Meeting: Promoting Societal Change: Integrating Traumatic Stress Research, Practice and Policy for Vulnerable Populations, Washington DC.

Strøm, I. F., Birkeland, M. S., Aakvaag, H. F., & Thoresen, S. (2018 November). Trajectories of Alcohol use in Young Adults Exposed to Childhood Violence and Later Problematic Drinking Behavior. Paper presented at The International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (ISTSS) Annual Meeting, Washington D.C.

Thoresen, S., Birkeland, M. S., Arnberg, F. K., Wentzel-Larsen, T., & Blix, I. (2018 November). Loss of trust may never heal. Institutional trust in disaster victims in a long-term perspective: Associations with social support and mental health. Paper presented at ISTSS Annual Meeting, Washington DC.

Thoresen, S., Strøm, I. F., Aakvaag, H. F., & Birkeland, M. S. (2018 August). Childhood violence and long-term consequences: Three lessons learned from a longitudinal study. Paper presented at The 10th Nordic Conference on Child Abuse and Neglect, Torshavn.

Thoresen, S., Aakvaag, H. F., Strøm, I. F., Wentzel-Larsen, T., & Birkeland, M. S. (2018 November). Violence-related shame, loneliness and health. An investigation of loneliness as a mediator of the relationship between shame and health problems in young people exposed to childhood violence. Paper presented at ISTSS Annual Meeting, Washington DC.

2017

Birkeland, M. S., & Heir, T. (2017 November). Making connections: a network approach to posttraumatic stress symptoms and covariates after a terrorist attack. Paper presented at ISTSS 33rd Annual Meeting: Trauma and Complexity: From Self to Cells, Chicago.

Ormhaug, S. M., Birkeland, M. S., & Jensen, T. K. (2017 June). “I don’t want to talk about it”. Youth’ disengagement in trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT). Paper presented at ESTSS konferansen, Odense.

Thoresen, S., Blix, I., & Birkeland, M. S. (2017 June). Erfaringer og helse hos overlevende og etterlatte fra Scandinavian Star-katastrofen. Foredrag på Støttegruppen for etterlatte etter mordbrannen på Scandinavian Star.

2016

Birkeland, M. S., Nielsen, M. B., Knardahl, S., & Heir, T. (2016 October). Arbeidsmiljø og helse etter 22. juli. Foredrag på Fem år siden 22. juli: Hva har vi lært?, Oslo.

Blix, I., Birkeland, M. S., Solberg, Ø., Hansen, M., & Heir, T. (2016 July). Centrality of event and posttraumatic stress after the 2011 Oslo bombing. Paper presented at Comparative Perspectives of Autobiographical Memory – What Animals and Humans Remember About Their Past, Århus.

Solberg, Ø., Birkeland, M. S., Blix, I., Hansen, M., & Heir, T. (2016 June). The Longitudinal Course of Post Traumatic Stress Symptomatology and Functional Impairment after the 2011 Oslo Bombing. Paper presented at Mental Time travel conference, Aarhus University.

2015

Birkeland, M. S. (2015 November). For whom does time heal wounds? Individual differences in stability and change in posttraumatic stress after the 2011 Oslo bombing. Paper presented at International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies 31st Annual Meeting, New Orleans.

2012

Birkeland, M. S., Breivik, K., & Wold, B. (2012 October). Associations between social relationships and development of global self-esteem. Paper presented at Childhood and beyond: tracing cohorts across the lifecourse, Paris.

2011

Birkeland, M. S., Torsheim, T., Leversen, I., & Wold, B. (2011 August). Patterns of transitions to adulthood. Paper presented at European Conference on Developmental Psychology 2011, Bergen.

2010

Birkeland, M. S., Melkevik, O., Holsen, I., & Wold, B. (2010 September). Trajectories of global self-esteem development during adolescence. Paper presented at Developments and Challenges in Longitudinal Studies from Childhood, Cambridge.

2009

Birkeland, M. S. (2009). Tilknytning og sosiale relasjoners betydning for ungdommers selvtillit. Impuls : Tidsskrift for psykologi, 63(2), 90-99.

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